General Site Information
Site ID:US-Wlr
Site Name:Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)
Tower Team: PI: David Cook <> - Argonne National Laboratory
PI: Richard L. Coulter <> - Argonne National Laboratory
Elevation (m):408
IGBP:GRA (Grasslands)
Climate Koeppen:Cfa (Humid Subtropical: mild with no dry season, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):13.52
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):881
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   4 years (Duration: 2001 - 2004)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   229 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246115
Description:The Walnut River Watershed site rests on a C3/C4 mixed grassland, tallgrass prairie grazed by cattle. The land is owned by a local farmer and the land is leased on a year-to-year basis.
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
F. Chen; D. N. Yates; H. Hagi; M. A. LeMone; K. Ikeda; R. L. Grossman. 2003. Land surface heteorogeneity in the cooperative atmosphere surface exchange study (CASES-97). Part I: Comparing modeled surface flux maps with surface-flux tower and aircraft measurementsJournal of Hydrometeorology. 4:2 (April), 196-218. Reference
J. D. Jastrow; R. M. Miller; C. E. Owensby. 2000. Long-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on below-ground biomass and transformations to soil organic matter in grasslandPlant and Soil. 224:1, 85-97. Reference
J. L. Sun; S. P. Burns; D. H. Lenschow; R. Banta; R. Newsom; R. Coulter; S. Frasier; T. Ince; C. Nappo; J. Cuxart; W. Blumen; X. Lee; X. Z. Hu. 2002. Intermittent turbulence associated with a density current passage in the stable boundary layerBoundary-Layer Meteorology. 105:2, 199-219. Reference
J. M. Jacobs; R. L. Coulter; Brutsaert, W.. 2000. Surface heat flux estimation with wind-profiler/RASS and radiosonde observationsAdvances in Water Resources. 23:4 (January 11), 339-348. Reference
J. Song; K Liao; R L. Coulter; B. M. Lesht. 2005. Climatology of the low-level jet at the southern Great Plains atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments siteJournal of Applied Meteorology. 44:10 (October 2005), 1593-1606. Reference
J. Song; M. L. Wesely; R. L. Coulter; E. A. Brandes. 2000. Estimating watershed evapotranspiration with PASS. Part I: Inferring root-zone moisture conditions using satellite dataJournal of Hydrometeorology. 1:5 (October), 447-461. Reference
J. Song; M.L. Wesely. 2003. On comparison of modeled surface flux variations to aircraft observationsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 117:3-4, 159-171. Reference
M. A. LeMone; R. L. Grossman; R. T. McMillen; K. N. Liou; S. C. Ou; S. McKeen; W. Angevine; K. Ikeda; F. Chen. 2002. Cases-97: Late-morning warming and moistening of the convective boundary layer over the Walnut River WatershedBoundary-Layer Meteorology. 104:1 (July), 1-52. Reference
M. A. LeMone; R.L. Grossman; R. L. Grossman; M.L. Wesley; G. E. Klazura; G. S. Poulos; W. Blumen; J. K. Lundquist; R. H. Cuenca; Kelly, S. F.; Brandes E. A.. 2000. Land-atmosphere interaction research, early results, and opportunities in the Walnut River Watershed in southeast Kansas: CASES and ABLEBulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 81:4 (April), 757-779. Reference
R. L. Grossman; D. Yates; M. A. LeMone; M. L. Wesely; J. Song. 2005. Observed effects of horizontal radiative surface temperature variations on the atmosphere over a midwest watershed during CASES 97Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 110:110 (D6) March 31, Art. No. D06117. Reference
R. M. Banta; R. K. Newsom; J. K. Lundquist; Y. L. Pichugina; R. L. Coulter; L. Mahrt. 2002. Nocturnal low-level jet characteristics over Kansas during CASES-99Boundary-Layer Meteorology. 105:2, 221-252. Reference
Richard L. Coulter; Mikhail S. Pekour; David R. Cook; Gerard E. Klazura; Timothy J. Martin; John D. Lucas. 2006. Surface energy and carbon dioxide fluxes above different vegetation types within ABLEAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 136:3-4, 147-158. Reference
W. Gao; R. L. Coulter; Lesht, B. M.; J. Qui; M. L. Wesley. 1998. Estimating clear-sky regional surface fluxes in the southern great plains atmopheric radiation measurement site with ground measurements and satellite observationsJournal of Applied Meteorology. 37:1 (January), 5-22. Reference

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
**Site Team Only** If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via