General Site Information
Site ID:US-Wkg
Site Name:Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands
Tower Team: PI: Russell Scott <russ.scott@ars.usda.gov> - United States Department of Agriculture
Latitude:31.7365
Longitude:-109.9419
Elevation (m):1531
NetworkAmeriFlux
IGBP:GRA (Grasslands)
Climate Koeppen:Bsk (Steppe: warm winter)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):15.64
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):407
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   13 years (Duration: 2004 - 2016)
FLUXNET2015:   11 years (Duration: 2004 - 2014)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   3 years (Duration: 2004 - 2006)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   293 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   799 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   88 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246112
Description:This site is located in a small, intensively-studied, experimental watershed within USDA-ARS's Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Eddy covariance measurements of energy, water and CO2 fluxes began in the spring of 2004, though meteorological (including Bowen ratio) and hydrological measurements are available much further back.
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
BibliographyUsage
Biederman, J.A., Scott, R.L., Goulden, M.L., Vargas, R., Litvak, M.E., Kolb, T.E., Yepez, E.A., Oechel, W.C., Blanken, P.D., Bell, T.W., Garatuza-Payan, J., Maurer, G.E., Dore, S. and Burns, S.P. 2016. Terrestrial carbon balance in a drier world: the effects of water availability in southwestern North America. Global Change Biology, 22, 1867-1879. Reference
Blonquist, J.M., Jr., Montzka, S.A., Munger, J.W., Yakir, D., Desai, A.R., Dragoni, D., Griffis, T.J., Monson, R.K., Scott, R.L., and Bowling, D.R. 2011. The potential of carbonyl sulfide as a proxy for gross primary production at flux tower sites. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 116, G04019, doi:10.1029/2011JG001723. Reference
Emmerich, William E. "Carbon dioxide fluxes in a semiarid environment with high carbonate soils." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 116.1 (2003): 91-102. Reference
Hamerlynck, E.P., Scott, R.L., and Barron-Gafford, G.A. 2013. Consequences of cool-season drought-induced plant mortality to Chihuahuan Desert grassland ecosystem and soil respiration dynamics. Ecosystems, 16, 1178-1191. doi:10.1007/s10021-013-9675-y. Reference
Krishnan, P., Meyers, T.P., Scott, R.L., Kennedy, L., and Heuer, M. 2012. Energy exchange and evapotranspiration over two temperate semi-arid grasslands in North America. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 153, 31-44., doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.09.017. Reference
Li, F., Kustas, W.P., Anderson, M.A., Prueger, J.H., and Scott, R.L. 2008. Effect of remote sensing spatial resolution on interpreting tower-based flux observations. Remote Sensing and the Environment, 112, 337-349. Reference
Moran, M.S., Scott, R.L., Hamerlynck, E.P., Green, K.N., Emmerich, W.E., and Holifield Collins, C.D. 2009. Soil evaporation response to Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) invasion in a semiarid watershed. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 2133-2142. Reference
Moran, M.S., Scott, R.L., Keefer, T.O., Emmerich, W.E., Hernandez, M., Nearing, G.S., Paige, G., Cosh, M.H., and O’Neill, P.E. 2009. Partitioning evapotranspiration in semiarid grassland and shrubland ecosystems using time series of soil surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 59-72. Reference
Polyakov, V.O., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Hamerlynck, E.P., Nichols, M.H., Holifield Collins, C.D., and Scott, R.L. 2010. Runoff and erosional responses to a drought-induced shift in a desert grassland community composition. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 115, G04027, doi:10.1029/2010JG001386 Reference
Scott, R.L. 2010. Using watershed water balance to evaluate the accuracy of eddy covariance evaporation measurements for three semiarid ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 219-225. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.11.002. Reference
Scott, R.L., Biederman, J.A., Hamerlynck, E.P. and Barron-Gafford, G.A. 2015. The carbon balance pivot point of southwestern U.S. semiarid ecosystems: Insights from the 21st century drought. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 120, 2612-2624. Reference
Scott, R.L., Hamerlynck, E.P., Jenerette, G.D., Moran, M.S., and Barron-Gafford, G. 2010. Carbon dioxide exchange in a semidesert grassland through drought-induced vegetation change. 2010. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 115, G03026. doi:10.1029/2010JG001348. Primary_Citation
Watts, C.J., Scott, R.L., Garatuza-Payan, J., Rodriguez, J.C., Prueger, J., Kustas, W., and Douglas, M. 2007. Changes in vegetation condition and surface fluxes during NAME 2004. Journal of Climate, 20, 1810-1820. Reference
William E. Emmerich (2007) Ecosystem Water Use Efficiency in a Semiarid Shrubland and Grassland Community. Rangeland Ecology & Management: September 2007, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 464-470. Reference

These pages show the current information available at http://ameriflux.lbl.gov about this tower.
**Site Team Only** If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via http://ameriflux.lbl.gov/web-submit-ui/?site_id=US-Wkg