General Site Information
Site ID:US-WCr
Site Name:Willow Creek
Tower Team: PI: Ankur Desai <> - University of Wisconsin
FluxContact: Jonathan Thom <> - University of Wisconsin
Elevation (m):520.00
IGBP:DBF (Deciduous Broadleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):4.02
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):787
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   18 years (Duration: 1998 - 2015)
FLUXNET2015:   16 years (Duration: 1999 - 2014)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   8 years (Duration: 1999 - 2006)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   205 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   544 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   252 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246111
Description:Upland decduous broadleaf forest. Mainly sugar maple, also basswood. Uniform stand atop a very modest hill. Clearcut approximately 80 years ago. Chosen to be representative of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. It appears to be more heavily forested and more productive than most of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests in the WLEF flux footprint (see publications for more details). It is also important that SE winds are screened from the flux data (see Cook et al, 2004 for details). Propane generator power.
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
A. S. Denning; M. Nicholls; L. Prihodko; I. Baker; P. L. Vidale; K. Davis; P. Bakwin. 2003. Simulated variations in atmospheric CO2 over a Wisconsin forest using a coupled ecosystem-atmosphere modelGlobal Change Biology. 9:9, 1241-1250. Reference
B. D. Cook;K. J. Davis;W. G. Wang;A. Desai;B. W. Berger;R. M. Teclaw;J. G. Martin;P. V. Bolstad;P. S. Bakwin;C. X. Yi;W. Heilman. 2004. Carbon exchange and venting anomalies in an upland deciduous forest in northern Wisconsin, USA, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 126:3-4. 271-295 Primary_Citation
B. E. Potter; R. M. Teclaw; J. C. Zasada. 2001. The impact of forest structure on near-ground temperatures during two years of contrasting temperature extremesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 106:4, 331-336. Reference
C. Werner; K. Davis; P. Bakwin; C. X. Yi; D. Hurst; L. Lock. 2003. Regional-scale measurements of CH4 exchange from a tall tower over a mixed temperate/boreal lowland and wetland forestGlobal Change Biology. 9:9, 1251-1261. Reference
C. Yi; K. J. Davis; P. S. Bakwin; A. S. Denning; N. Zhang; A. Desai; J. C. Lin; C. Gerbig. 2004. Observed covariance between ecosystem carbon exchange and atmospheric boundary layer dynamics at a site in northern WisconsinJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 109:D8. Reference
C. Yi; R. Li; P. S. Bakwin; A. Desai; D. M. Ricciuto; S.P. Burns; A. A. Turnipseed; S. C. Wofsy; J. W. Munger; K. Wilson; R. K. Monson. 2004. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurementsGeophysical Research Letters. 31:17, L17107. Reference
Desai, A.R., 2010. Climatic and phenological controls on coherent regional interannual variability of carbon dioxide flux in a heterogeneous landscape. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 115: G00J02 , doi:10.1029/2010JG001423 Reference
Desai, A.R., Bolstad, P.V., Cook, B.D., Davis, K.J., and Carey, E.V., 2005. Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper Midwest, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 128(1-2): 33-55, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.09.005. Alt_Citation
Desai, A.R., Noormets, A.N., Bolstad, P.V., Chen, J., Cook, B.D., Davis, K.J., Euskirchen, E.S., Gough, C.M., Martin, J.G., Ricciuto, D.M., Schmid, H.P., Tang, J.W. and Wang, W., 2008. Influence of vegetation and seasonal forcing on carbon dioxide fluxes across the Upper Midwest, USA: Implications for regional scaling, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(2): 288-308,doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.001.  Reference
I. Baker; A. S. Denning; N. Hanan; L. Prihodko; M. Uliasz; P. L. Vidale; K. Davis; P. Bakwin. 2003. Simulated and observed fluxes of sensible and latent heat and CO2 at the WLEF-TV tower using SiB2.5Global Change Biology. 9:9, 1262-1277. Reference
Jonathan G. Martin; Paul V. Bolstad. 2005. Annual soil respiration in broadleaf forests of northern Wisconsin: influence of moisture and site biological, chemical, and physical characteristicsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 149-182. Reference
K. A. Hibbard; B. E. Law; M. Reichstein; J. Sulzman. 2005. An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystemsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 29-70. Reference
K. J. Davis; P. S. Bakwin; C. X. Yi; B. W. Berger; C. L. Zhao; R. M. Teclaw; J. G. Isebrands. 2003. The annual cycles of CO2 and H2O exchange over a northern mixed forest as observed from a very tall towerGlobal Change Biology. 9:9, 1278-1293. Reference
P. S. Curtis; P. J. Hanson; P. Bolstad; C. Barford; J. C. Randolph; H. P. Schmid; K. B. Wilson. 2002. Biometric and eddy-covariance based estimates of annual carbon storage in five eastern North American deciduous forestsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 3-19. Reference
P. V. Bolstad; K. J. Davis; J. Martin; B. D. Cook; W. Wang. 2004. Component and whole-system respiration fluxes in northern deciduous forestsTree Physiology. 24:5, 493-504. Reference
P.S. Bakwin; K. J. Davis; C. Yi; S.C. Wofsy; J. W. Munger; L. Haszpra; Z. Barcza. 2004. Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from mixing ratio dataTellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 56B:4, 301-311. Reference
Phillips, C., McFarlane, K.J., Risk, D., and Desai, A.R., 2013. Biological and physical influences on soil 14CO2 seasonal dynamics in a temperate hardwood forest. Biogeosciences, 10, 7999-8012, doi:10.5194/bg-10-7999-2013 Reference

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
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