General Site Information
Site ID:US-WBW
Site Name:Walker Branch Watershed
Tower Team: PI: Tilden Meyers <Tilden.Meyers@noaa.gov> - NOAA/ARL
Latitude:35.9588
Longitude:-84.2874
Elevation (m):283
NetworkAmeriFlux
IGBP:DBF (Deciduous Broadleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Cfa (Humid Subtropical: mild with no dry season, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):13.71
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):1372
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   13 years (Duration: 1995 - 2007)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   5 years (Duration: 1995 - 1999)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   248 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   229 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246109
Description:The stand is over 50 years old, having regenerated from agricultural land.This site is located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee near the Walker Branch Watershed.
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
BibliographyUsage
A. W. Andren; S. E. Lindberg. 1977. Atmospheric Input and Origin of Selected Elements in Walker Branch Watershed, Oak-Ridge, TennesseeWater Air and Soil Pollution. 8:2, 199-215. Reference
Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory. 1972. Daily, monthly, and annual climatological data for Oak Ridge, Tennessee, townsite and area stations. January 1951 through 1971ATDL Report 61. Reference
B. A. Hutchinson; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen; L. J. Gross; S. J. Tajchman; J. M. Norman. 1986. The architecture of a deciduous forest canopy in eastern TennesseeJournal of Ecology. 74, 635-676. Reference
B. A. Hutchison; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen. 1980. Effects of sky brightness distribution upon penetration of diffuse radiation through canopy gaps in a deciduous forestAgricultural Meteorology. 22, 137-147. Reference
B. B. Hicks; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen; J. D. Womack; M. L. Wesely; R. L. Hart; D. R. Cook; S. E. Lindberg; R. G. Depena; D. W. Thomson. 1989. A field investigation of sulfate fluxes to a deciduous forestJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 94:D10, 13003. Reference
B. B. Hicks; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen; J. D. Womack; R. E. Shetter. 1983. Eddy fluxes of nitrogen oxides to a deciduous forest in complex terrainMeteorology of Acid Deposition Conference Proceedings"". 189-201. Reference
B. Bond-Lamberty; C. K. Wang; S. T. Gower. 2004. A global relationship between the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration?Global Change Biology. 10:10, 1756-1766. Reference
C. E. Comiskey; G. S. Henderson; R. H. Gardner; F. W. Woods. 1977. Patterns of organic matter transport on Walker Branch WatershedWatershed Research in Eastern North America: A workshop to compare results. Volume 1. Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. 1, 439-467. Reference
C. Yi; R. Li; P. S. Bakwin; A. Desai; D. M. Ricciuto; S.P. Burns; A. A. Turnipseed; S. C. Wofsy; J. W. Munger; K. Wilson; R. K. Monson. 2004. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurementsGeophysical Research Letters. 31:17, L17107. Reference
D. Baldocchi. 1997. Flux footprints within and over forest canopiesBoundary-Layer Meteorology. 85:2, 273. Reference
D. Baldocchi; E. Falge; K. Wilson. 2001. A spectral analysis of biosphere-atmosphere trace gas flux densities and meteorological variables across hour to multi- year time scalesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 107:1, 1-27. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi. 1989. Turbulence transfer in a deciduous forestTree Physiology. 5, 357-377. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi. 1997. Measuring and modeling carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange over a temperate broad-leaved forest during the 1995 summer droughtPlant, Cell and Environment. 20, 1108-1122. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; B. A. Hutchison. 1986. On estimating canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in a deciduous forest with clumped foliageTree Physiology. 2, 155-168. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; B. A. Hutchison; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen. 1984. Seasonal variations in the radiation regime within an oak-hickory forestAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 33, 177-191. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; B. A. Hutchison; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen. 1985. Canopy radiative transfer models for spherical and known leaf inclination angle distributions: a test in an oak-hickory forestJournal of Applied Ecology. 22, 539-555. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; B. A. Hutchison; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen. 1986. Seasonal variations in the statistics of photosynthetically active radiation penetration in an oak hickory forestAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 36, 343-361. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; B. B. Hicks; P. Camara. 1987. A canopy stomatal resistance model for gaseous deposition to vegetated surfacesAtmospheric Environment. 21, 91-101. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; B. B. Hicks; T. P. Meyers. 1988. Measuring biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of biologically related gases with micrometeorological methodsEcology. 69:5, 1331-1340. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; D. R. Matt; B. A. Hutchison; R. T. McMillen. 1984. Solar radiation in an oak-hickory forest : an evaluation of extinction coefficients for several radiation components during fully-leafed and leafless periodsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 32, 307-322. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; D. R. Matt; R. T. McMillen; B. A. Hutchsion. 1985. Evapotranspiration from an oak-hickory forestProceedings of the National Conference on Advances in Evapotranspiration, December 16-17, 1985, Chicago, Illinois. 414-422. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; J. S. Amthor. 1998. Canopy Photosynthesis: History, measurements and modelsTerrestrial Global Productivity: Past, Present and Future. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; K. B. Wilson. 2001. Modeling CO2 and water vapor exchange of a temperate broadleaved forest across hourly to decadal time scalesEcological Modelling. 142:1-2, 155-184. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; K. B. Wilson; L. H. Gu. 2002. How the environment, canopy structure and canopy physiological functioning influence carbon, water and energy fluxes of a temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest-an assessment with the biophysical model CANOAKTree Physiology. 22:15-16, 1065-1077. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; P. C. Harley. 1995. Scaling carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange from leaf to canopy in a deciduous forest: model testing and applicationPlant, Cell and Environment. 18, 1157-1173. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; S. B. Verma; D. E. Anderson; D. R. Matt. 1986. Eddy correlation measurements of CO2 efflux from the floor of an oak hickory forestJournal of Applied Ecology. 23, 967-977. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; T. P. Meyers. 1988. A spectral and lag correlation analysis of turbulence in a deciduous forest canopyBoundary Layer Meteorology. 45, 31-58. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; T. P. Meyers. 1988. Turbulence structure in a deciduous forestBoundary-Layer Meteorology. 43:4, 345-365. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; T. P. Meyers. 1991. Trace gas-exchange above the floor of a deciduous forest .1. Evaporation and CO2 effluxJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 96:D4, 7271-7285. Reference
D. D. Baldocchi; T. P. Meyers. 1998. On using eco-physiological, micrometeorological and biogeochemical theory to evaluate carbon dioxide, water vapor and gaseous deposition fluxes over vegetationAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 90, 1-26. Reference
D. D. Richter; D. W. Johnson; D. E. Todd. 1983. Atmospheric sulfur deposition, neutralization and ion leaching in two deciduous forest ecosystemsJournal of Environmental Quality. 12, 263-270. Reference
D. E. Reichle; N. T. Edwards. 1973. IBP-Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome - Oak Ridge SiteModeling Forest Ecosystems. EDFB/IBP-73-7. 151-201. Reference
D. F. Grigal; R. A. Goldstein. 1971. An integrated ordination-classification analysis of an intensively sampled oak-hickory forestJournal of Ecology. 59, 481-492. Reference
D. F. Grigal; T. Grizzard. 1975. Analysis of Litterfall in a Deciduous Forest on Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee - Data Stratification by 2 Alternative MethodsAmerican Midland Naturalist. 94:2, 361-369. Reference
D. F. Hui; S. Q. Wan; B. Su; G. Katul; R. Monson; Y. Q. Luo. 2004. Gap-filling missing data in eddy covariance measurements using multiple imputation (MI) for annual estimationsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 121:1-2, 93-111. Reference
D. R. Bowling; A. A. Turnipseed; A. C. Delany; D. D. Baldocchi; J. P. Greenberg; R. K. Monson. 1998. The use of relaxed eddy accumulation to measure biosphere- atmosphere exchange of isoprene and of her biological trace gasesOecologia. 116:3, 306-315. Reference
D. R. Bowling; D. D. Baldocchi; R. K. Monson. 1999. Dynamics of isotopic exchange of carbon dioxide in a Tennessee deciduous forestGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 13:4, 903-922. Reference
D. W. Johnson; D. W. Cole; F. W. Horng; H. Van Miegroet; D. E. Todd. 1981. Chemical characteristics of two forested ultisols and two forested inceptisols relevant to anion production and mobility. Reference
D.D. Baldocchi; D.R. Bowling. 2003. Modelling the discrimination of 13CO2 above and within a temperate broad-leaved forest canopy on hourly to seasonal time scalesPlant, Cell and Environment. 26:2, 231-244. Reference
Dennis D. Baldocchi; Christoph A. Vogel. 1996. Energy and Carbon Dioxide Flux Densities Above and Below a Temperate Broad-leaved Forest and a Boreal Pine ForestTree Physiology. 16, 5-16. Reference
E. A. Davidson; K. Savage; P. Bolstad; D. A. Clark; P. S. Curtis; D. S. Ellsworth; P. J. Hanson; B. E. Law; Y. Luo; K. S. Pregitzer; J. C. Randolph; D. Zak. 2002. Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA-based soil respiration measurementsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 39-51. Reference
G. S. Henderson. 1972. Litter biomass and nutrient contents in four forest stands on Walker Branch Watershed. Reference
G. S. Henderson; A. Hunley; W. Selvidge. 1977. Nutrient discharge from Walker Branch WatershedWatershed Research in Eastern North America: A workshop to compare results. 307-320. Reference
G. S. Henderson; W. F. Harris; D. E. Todd, Jr.; T. Grizzard. 1977. Quantity and chemistry of throughfall as influenced by forest type and seasonJournal of Ecology. 65, 364-374. Reference
H. H. Shugart; W. F. Harris; N. T. Edwards; B. S. Ausmus. 1977. Modeling of belowground processes associated with roots in deciduous forest ecosystemsPedobiologia. 17, 382-388. Reference
H. J. Wang; D. D. Baldocchi. 1989. A numerical-model for simulating the radiation regime within a deciduous forest canopyAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 46:4, 313-337. Reference
J. Canadell; H. Mooney; D. Baldocchi; J. Berry; J. Ehleringer; C. Field; T. Gower; D. Hollinger; J. Hunt; R. Jackson; G. Shaver; S. Trumbore; R. Valentini; B. Yoder. 1999. Ecosystem metabolism and the global carbon cycleBioscience. 14 ::(6), 249-249. Reference
J. D. Sheppard; G. S. Henderson; T. Grizzard; M. T. Heath. 1973. Hydrology of a forested catchment: Water balance from 1969 to 1972 on Walker Branch Watershed. Reference
J. S. Amthor; D. D. Baldocchi. 1998. Terrestrial Higher-Plant Respiration and Net Primary ProductionTerrestrial Global Productivity: Past, Present and Future. Reference
J. W. Curlin; D. J. Nelson. 1968. Walker Branch Watershed Project: objectives, facilities and ecological characteristicsORNL/TM-2271. Reference
K. B. Wilson; D. D. Baldocchi. 2000. Seasonal and interannual variability of energy fluxes over a broadleaved temperate deciduous forest in North AmericaAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 100, 1-18. Reference
K. B. Wilson; D. D. Baldocchi. 2001. Comparing independent estimates of carbon dioxide exchange over 5 years at a deciduous forest in the southeastern United StatesJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 106:D24, 34167-34178. Reference
K. B. Wilson; D. D. Baldocchi; P. J. Hanson. 2000. Spatial and seasonal variability of photosynthetic parameters and their relationship to leaf nitrogen in a deciduous forestTree Physiology. 20:9, 565-578. Reference
K. B. Wilson; D. D. Baldocchi; P. J. Hanson. 2001. Leaf age affects the seasonal pattern of photosynthetic capacity and net ecosystem exchange of carbon in a deciduous forestPlant, Cell and Environment. 24:6, 571-583. Reference
K. B. Wilson; P. J. Hanson; D. D. Baldocchi. 2000. Factors controlling evaporation and energy partitioning beneath a deciduous forest over an annual cycleAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 102:2-3, 83-103. Reference
K. B. Wilson; P. J. Hanson; P. J. Mulholland; D. D. Baldocchi; S. D. Wullschleger. 2001. A comparison of methods for determining forest evapotranspiration and its components: sap-flow, soil water budget, eddy covariance and catchment water balanceAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 106:2, 153-168. Reference
K. B. Wilson; T. P. Meyers. 2001. The spatial variability of energy and carbon dioxide fluxes at the floor of a deciduous forestBoundary-Layer Meteorology. 98:3, 443-473. Reference
L. H. Gu; W. M. Post; A. W. King. 2004. Fast labile carbon turnover obscures sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration from soil to temperature: A model analysisGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 18:1. Reference
L. K. Balick; B. A. Hutchison. 1986. Directional thermal infrared exitance distributions from a leafless deciduous forestRemote Sensing. 693-698. Reference
M. R. Raupach; D. D. Baldocchi; H. Bolle; L. Dumenil; W. Eugster; F. Meixner; J. Olejnik; R. Pielke; J. Tenhunen; R. Valentini. 1998. How is the atmospheric coupling of land survaces affected by topography, complexity in landscape patterning and the vegetation mosaic?Integrating Hydrology, Ecosystem Dynamics and Biogeochemistry in Complex Landscapes. Reference
Matamala, R.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Jastrow, J. D.; Norby, R. J.; Schlesinger, W. H.. 2004. Response to comment on Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potentialScience. 304:5678: June 18, 2004, 1385-1387. Reference
N. T. Edward; W. F. Harris. 1977. Carbon cycling in a mixed deciduous forest floor.58Ecology. 431-437. Reference
P. C. Harley; D. D. Baldocchi. 1995. Scaling carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange from leaf to canopy in a deciduous forest:leaf level parameterizationPlant, Cell and Environment. 18, 1146-1156. Reference
P. Harley; A. Guenther; P. Zimmerman. 1997. Environmental controls over isoprene emission in deciduous oak canopiesTree Physiology. 17:11, 705. Reference
P. J. Hanson; D. E. Todd; J. S. Amthor. 2001. A six-year study of sapling and large-tree growth and mortality responses to natural and induced variability in precipitation and throughfallTree Physiology. 21:6, 345-358. Reference
Paul J. Hanson; Stan D. Wullschleger; Richard J. Norby; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Carla A. Gunderson. 2005. Importance of changing CO2, temperature, precipitation, and ozone on carbon and water cycles of an upland-oak forest: incorporating experimental results into model simulationsGlobal Change Biology. 11:9, 1402-1423. Reference
R. J. Luxmoore. 1983. Water budget of an eastern deciduous forest standSoil Science Society of America Journal. 47, 785-791. Reference
R. J. Luxmoore; T. Grizzard; M. R. Patterson. 1981. Hydraulic properties of Fullerton cherty silt loamSoil Science Society of America Journal. 45, 692-698. Reference
R. M. Cushman; J. W. Elwood; S. G. Hildebrand. 1977. Life-History and Production Dynamics of Alloperla-Mediana and Diplectrona-Modesta in Walker Branch, TennesseeAmerican Midland Naturalist. 98:2, 354-364. Reference
R. Matamala; M. A. Gonzalez-Meler; J. D. Jastrow; R. J. Norby; W. H. Schlesinger. 2003. Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potentialScience. 302:5649, 1385-1387. Reference
R. Matamala; M. A. Gonzalez-Meler; J. D. Jastrow; R. J. Norby; W. H. Schlesinger. 2004. Response to comment on ""Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential""Science. 304:5678. Reference
R. Valentini; D. Baldocchi; J. Tenhunen. 1998. Ecological Controls on Land Surface Atmospheric InteractionsIntegrating Hydrology, Ecosystem Dynamics and Biogeochemistry in Complex Landscapes. Reference
S. B. McLaughlin; S. D. Wullschleger; M. Nosal. 2003. Diurnal and seasonal changes in stem increment and water use by yellow poplar trees in response to environmental stressTree Physiology. 23:16, 1125-1136. Reference
S. B. Verma; D. D. Baldocchi; D. E. Anderson; D. R. Matt; R. J. Clement. 1986. Eddy fluxes of CO2, water vapor and sensible heat over a deciduous forestBoundary-Layer Meteorology. 36, 71-91. Reference
S. E. Lindberg; A. W. Andren; R. J. Raridon; W. Fulkerson. 1975. Mass balance of trace elements in Walker Branch Watershed: relation to coal-fired steam plantsEnvironmental Health Perspectives. 12, 9-18. Reference
S. E. Lindberg; R. C. Harriss. 1981. The role of atmospheric deposition in an eastern United States deciduous forestWater Air and Soil Pollution. 16:1, 13. Reference
S. E. Lindberg; R. C. Harriss; R. R. Turner. 1982. Atmospheric deposition of metals to a forest canopyScience. 215, 1609-1611. Reference
S. E. Lindberg; R. C. Harriss; R. R. Turner; D. S. Shriner; D. D. Huff. 1979. Mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition of trace elements and sulfate to a deciduous forest watershed. Reference
S. E. Lindberg; R. R. Turner; D. S. Shriner; T. Tamura; R. C. Harris. 1979. Mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition of trace- elements and sulfate to a forest canopyAbstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. Apr, 190. Reference
S. E. Lindberg; R. R. Turner; N. M. Ferguson; D. Matt. 1977. Walker Branch Watershed element cycling studies: Collection and analysis of wetfall for trace elements and sulfateWatershed Research in Eastern North American. 125-150. Reference
S. Greco; D. D. Baldocchi. 1996. Seasonal variations of CO2 and water vapour exchange rates over a temperate deciduous forestGlobal Change Biology. 2:3, 183-197. Reference
T. L. Cox; W. F. Harris; B. S. Ausmus; N. T. Edwards. 1977. The role of roots in biogeochemical cycles in eastern deciduous forestsThe Belowground Ecosystem: A Synthesis of Plant Associated Processes. 321-326. Reference
W. A. Hoffman; S. E. Lindberg; R. R. Turner. 1980. Precipitation acidity - the role of the forest canopy in acid exchangeJournal of Environmental Quality. 9:1, 95-100. Reference
W. A. Hoffman; S. E. Lindberg; R. R. Turner. 1980. Some observations of organic-constituents in rain above and below a forest canopyEnvironmental Science and Technology. 14:8, 999. Reference
W. F. Harris; P. Sollins; N. T. Edwards; B. E. Dinger; H. H. Shugart. 1975. Analysis of carbon flow and productivity in a temperate deciduous forest ecosystemProductivity of World Ecosystems. 116-122. Reference
Y. Malhi; D. D. Baldocchi; P. G. Jarvis. 1998. Carbon sinks in tropical, temperate and boreal forests: three case studiesPlant, Cell and Environment. Reference
Y. Malhi; D. D. Baldocchi; P. G. Jarvis. 1999. The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forestsPlant, Cell and Environment. 22:6, 715-740. Reference

These pages show the current information available at http://ameriflux.lbl.gov about this tower.
**Site Team Only** If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via http://ameriflux.lbl.gov/web-submit-ui/?site_id=US-WBW