General Site Information
Site ID:US-Twt
Site Name:Twitchell Island
Tower Team: PI: Dennis Baldocchi <> - University of California, Berkeley
AncContact: Joe Verfaillie <> - University of California, Berkeley
FluxContact: Elke Eichelmann <> - UC Berkeley
Technician: Daphne Szutu <> - UC Berkeley
Affiliate: Sara Knox <> - USGS
Elevation (m):None
IGBP:CRO (Croplands)
Climate Koeppen:Csa (Mediterranean: mild with dry, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):15.6
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):421
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   7 years (Duration: 2009 - 2015)
FLUXNET2015:   6 years (Duration: 2009 - 2014)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   276 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   621 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246140
Description:The Twitchell Island site is a rice paddy that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. While Bare Peat field was leveled for rice planting, the tower was installed on April 3, 2009. The rice paddy was converted from corn in 2007. In Summer 2009, Bispyribac-sodium and Pendimethalin herbicides were applied to the fields prior to rice planting and flooding, then pesticide and fertilizer application took place. Each year after rice is planted in the spring by drilling, the field is flooded. Then, the field is drained in early fall, rice is harvested, and the field site is moved.
Acknowledgments:California Department of Water Resources; USDA/AFRI
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
Baldocchi, D., S. Knox, I. Dronova, J. Verfaillie, P. Oikawa, C. Sturtevant, J. H. Matthes, and M. Detto. 2016. The impact of expanding flooded land area on the annual evaporation of rice. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 223:181-193. Alt_Citation
Hatala, J. A., et al. (2012). "Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, H2O) fluxes from drained and flooded agricultural peatlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 150: 1-18. Alt_Citation
Hatala, J. A., et al. (2012). "Gross ecosystem photosynthesis causes a diurnal pattern in methane emission from rice." Geophysical Research Letters 39(6): n/a-n/a. Analysis_Result
Knox, S. H., J. H. Matthes, C. Sturtevant, P. Y. Oikawa, J. Verfaillie, and D. Baldocchi. 2016. Biophysical controls on interannual variability in ecosystem-scale CO2 and CH4 exchange in a California rice paddy. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 121:978-1001. Primary_Citation

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
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