General Site Information
Site ID:US-PFa
Site Name:Park Falls/WLEF
Tower Team: PI: Ankur Desai <> - University of Wisconsin
FluxContact: Jonathan Thom <> - University of Wisconsin
Affiliate: Arlyn E. Andrews <> - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Affiliate: Dan Baumann <> - USGS
Affiliate: Paul Bolstad <> - University of Minnesota
Elevation (m):470.00
IGBP:MF (Mixed Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):4.33
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):823
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   21 years (Duration: 1995 - 2015)
FLUXNET2015:   20 years (Duration: 1995 - 2014)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   8 years (Duration: 1996 - 2003)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   194 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   371 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   236 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246090
Description:The flux footprint encompasses a highly heterogeneous landscape of upland forests and wetlands (forested and nonforested). The forests are mainly deciduous but also include substantial coniferous coverage. The upland/lowland variability occurs on spatial scales of a few hundred meters. This heterogeneous landscape is further complicated by a nonuniform, small scale mosaic of thinning and clearcutting of the forest. At larger scales (1 km or greater) the forest cover mosaic is quite homogeneous for many kilometers. The site was chosen not for study of a simple stand, but for upscaling experiments. The daytime fetch of flux measurements from the 396m level is on the order of 5-10 km, yielding a flux footprint roughly 100x the area of a typical stand-level flux tower. AC power (tower is a TV transmitter).
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
A. D. Richardson; D. Y. Hollinger; G. G. Burba; K. J. Davis; L. B. Flanagan; G. G. Katul; J. W. Munger; D. M. Ricciuto; P. C. Stoy; A. E. Suyker; S. B. Verma; S. C. Wofsy. 2006. A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 136:1-2, 1-18. Reference
A. S. Denning;M. Nicholls;L. Prihodko;I. Baker;P. L. Vidale;K. Davis;P. Bakwin. 2003. Simulated variations in atmospheric CO2 over a Wisconsin forest using a coupled ecosystem-atmosphere model, Global Change Biology, 9:9. 1241-1250; Reference
Andrews, A.E., Kofler, J.D., Trudeau, M.E., Williams, Neff, D.H., Masarie, K.A., Chao, D.Y., Kitzis, D.R., Novelli, P.C., Zhao, C.L., Dlugokencky, E.J., Lang, P.M., Crotwell, M.J., Fischer, M.L., Parker, M.J., Lee, J.T., Baumann, D.D., Desai, A.R., Stanier, C.O., de Wekker, S.F.J., Wolfe, D.E., Munger, J.W., and Tans, P.P., 2014. CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 647-687,doi:10.5194/amt-7-647-2014. Reference
B. D. Cook; K. J. Davis; W. G. Wang; A. Desai; B. W. Berger; R. M. Teclaw; J. G. Martin; P. V. Bolstad; P. S. Bakwin; C. X. Yi; W. Heilman. 2004. Carbon exchange and venting anomalies in an upland deciduous forest in northern Wisconsin, USAAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 126:3-4, 271-295. Reference
B. W. Berger; K. J. Davis; C. X. Yi; P. S. Bakwin; C. L. Zhao. 2001. Long-term carbon dioxide fluxes from a very tall tower in a northern forest: Flux measurement methodologyJournal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 18:4, 529-542. Reference
C. Werner;K. Davis;P. Bakwin;C. X. Yi;D. Hurst;L. Lock. 2003. Regional-scale measurements of CH4 exchange from a tall tower over a mixed temperate/boreal lowland and wetland forest, Global Change Biology, 9:9. 1251-1261; Reference
C. X. Yi; K. J. Davis; B. W. Berger; P. S. Bakwin. 2001. Long-term observations of the dynamics of the continental planetary boundary layerJournal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 58:10, 1288-1299. Reference
C. Yi;K. J. Davis;P. S. Bakwin;A. S. Denning;N. Zhang;A. Desai;J. C. Lin;C. Gerbig. 2004. Observed covariance between ecosystem carbon exchange and atmospheric boundary layer dynamics at a site in northern Wisconsin, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 109:D8. ; Reference
C. Yi;R. Li;P. S. Bakwin;A. Desai;D. M. Ricciuto;S.P. Burns;A. A. Turnipseed;S. C. Wofsy;J. W. Munger;K. Wilson;R. K. Monson. 2004. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 31:17. L17107 Reference
D. S. MacKay;D. E. Ahl;B. E. Ewers;S. T. Gower;S. N. Burrows;S. Samanta;K. J. Davis. 2002. Effects of aggregated classifications of forest composition on estimates of evapotranspiration in a northern Wisconsin forest, Global Change Biology, 8:12. 1253-1265; Reference
Desai, A.R., 2010. Climatic and phenological controls on coherent regional interannual variability of carbon dioxide flux in a heterogeneous landscape. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 115: G00J02 , doi:10.1029/2010JG001423 Reference
Desai, A.R., 2014. Influence and predictive capacity of climate anomalies on daily to decadal extremes in canopy photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 119, 31-47, doi:10.1007/s11120-013-9925-z Alt_Citation
Desai, A.R., Helliker, B.R., Moorcroft, P.R., Andrews, A.E., and Berry, J.A., 2010. Interannual variability in regional carbon fluxes from top-down and bottom-up perspectives. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 115, G02011,doi:10.1029/2009JG001122. Reference
Desai, A.R., Moorcroft, P.R., Bolstad, P.V., and Davis, K.J., 2007. Regional carbon fluxes from a biometrically-constrained dynamic ecosystem model: Impact of disturbance, CO2 fertilization and heterogeneous land cover. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 112(G01017), doi:10.1029/2006JG000264 Reference
Desai, A.R., Noormets, A.N., Bolstad, P.V., Chen, J., Cook, B.D., Davis, K.J., Euskirchen, E.S., Gough, C.M., Martin, J.G., Ricciuto, D.M., Schmid, H.P., Tang, J.W. and Wang, W., 2008. Influence of vegetation and seasonal forcing on carbon dioxide fluxes across the Upper Midwest, USA: Implications for regional scaling, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(2): 288-308,doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.001.  Reference
Desai, A.R., Xu, K., Tian H., Weishampel, P., Thom, J., Baumann, D., Andrews, A.E., Cook, B.D., King, J.Y., and Kolka, R., 2015. Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 201, 61-75, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.10.017. Primary_Citation
I. Baker;A. S. Denning;N. Hanan;L. Prihodko;M. Uliasz;P. L. Vidale;K. Davis;P. Bakwin. 2003. Simulated and observed fluxes of sensible and latent heat and CO2 at the WLEF-TV tower using SiB2.5, Global Change Biology, 9:9. 1262-1277; Reference
K. J. Davis;P. S. Bakwin;C. X. Yi;B. W. Berger;C. L. Zhao;R. M. Teclaw;J. G. Isebrands. 2003. The annual cycles of CO2 and H2O exchange over a northern mixed forest as observed from a very tall tower, Global Change Biology, 9:9. 1278-1293; Alt_Citation
Keppel-Aleks, G., Wennberg, P.O., Washenfelder, R.A., Wunch, D., Schneider, T., Toon, G.C., Andres, R., Blavier, J.-F., Connor, B., Davis, K.J., Desai, A.R., Messerschmidt, J., Notholt, J., Roehl, C.M., Sherlock, V., Stephens, B.B., Vay, S.A., and Wofsy, S.C., 2012. The imprint of surface fluxes and transport on variations in total column carbon dioxide. Biogeosciences 9, 875-891,doi:10.5194/bg-9-875-2012. Reference
M. D. Hurwitz;D. M. Ricciuto;P. S. Bakwin;K. J. Davis;W. G. Wang;C. X. Yi;M. P. Butler. 2004. Transport of carbon dioxide in the presence of storm systems over a Northern Wisconsin forest, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 61:5. 607-618; Reference
P.S. Bakwin;K. J. Davis;C. Yi;S.C. Wofsy;J. W. Munger;L. Haszpra;Z. Barcza. 2004. Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from mixing ratio data, Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 56B:4. 301-311; Reference
Petrescu, A.M., Lohila, A., Tuovinen, J.P., Baldocchi, D.D., Desai, A.R., Roulet, N.T., Vesala, T., et al., 2015. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 112, 4594-4599, doi:10.1073/pnas.1416267112 Reference
Pressel, K., Collins, W.C., and Desai, A.R., 2014. The spatial scale dependence of water vapor variability inferred from observations from a very tall tower. J. Geophys Res., 119(16), 9822-9837, doi:10.1002/2013JD021141. Reference
Vasys, V.N., Desai, A.R., McKinley , G.A., Bennington, V., Michalak, A.M., and Andrews, A.E., 2011. Influence of large lake carbon exchange on regional tracer transport inversions. Environmental Research Letters, 6 034016 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034016 Reference

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
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