General Site Information
Site ID:US-NR1
Site Name:Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1)
Tower Team: PI: Peter Blanken <Blanken@Colorado.EDU> - University of Colorado
AncContact: Sean Burns <> - University of Colorado
FluxContact: Russell Monson <> - The University of Arizona
Affiliate: David Bowling <> - University of Utah
Elevation (m):3050
IGBP:ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfc (Subarctic: severe winter, no dry season, cool summer)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):1.5
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):800
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   17 years (Duration: 1998 - 2014)
FLUXNET2015:   17 years (Duration: 1998 - 2014)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   5 years (Duration: 1999 - 2003)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   248 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   391 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   78 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246088
Description:The Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site is located in a subalpine forest ecosystem just below the Continental Divide near Nederland, CO. The site is located at 3050 m elevation, within 600m of the NOAA C1 long-term monitoring station, approximately 8 km east of the Continental Divide. The surrounding subalpine forest is ~97 years old and in a state of aggradation, having recovered from early twentieth century logging (Monson, et al. Global Change Biology (2002), 8 459-478).
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
A. A. Arain; N. Restrepo-Coupe. 2005. Net ecosystem production in a temperate pine plantation in southeastern CanadaAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 128:3-4, 223-241. Reference
A. A. Turnipseed; D. E. Anderson; P. D. Blanken; W. M. Baugh; R. K. Monson. 2003. Airflows and turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain Part 1. Canopy and local effectsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 119:1-2, 1-21. Reference
A. A. Turnipseed; D. E. Anderson; S. Burns; P. D. Blanken; R. K. Monson. 2004. Airflows and turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain Part 2: Mesoscale effectsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 125:3-4, 187-205. Reference
A. A. Turnipseed; P. D. Blanken; D. E. Anderson; R. K. Monson. 2002. Energy budget above a high-elevation subalpine forest in complex topographyAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 110:3, 177-201. Reference
Burns, S.P., J. Sun, D.H. Lenschow, S.P. Oncley, B.B. Stephens, C. Yi, D.E. Anderson, J. Hu, and R.K. Monson. 2011. Atmospheric Stability Effects on Wind Fields and Scalar Mixing Within and Just Above a Subalpine Forest in Sloping Terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 138(2): 231-262. Reference
C. Yi; R. Li; P. S. Bakwin; A. Desai; D. M. Ricciuto; S.P. Burns; A. A. Turnipseed; S. C. Wofsy; J. W. Munger; K. Wilson; R. K. Monson. 2004. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurementsGeophysical Research Letters. 31:17, L17107. Reference
C. Yi; R. Monson; Z. Zhai; D. E. Anderson; B. Lamb; G. Allwine; A. Turnipseed; S. Burns. 2005. Modeling and measuring the nocturnal drainage flow in a high-elevation, subalpine forest with complex terrainJournal of Geophysical Research. 110:D22303, doi:10.1029/2005JD006282. Reference
D. F. Hui; S. Q. Wan; B. Su; G. Katul; R. Monson; Y. Q. Luo. 2004. Gap-filling missing data in eddy covariance measurements using multiple imputation (MI) for annual estimationsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 121:1-2, 93-111. Reference
D. R. Bowling; S. P. Burns; T. J. Conway; R. K. Monson; J. W. C. White. 2005. Extensive observations of CO2 carbon isotope content in and above a high-elevation subalpine forestGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 19:3. Reference
D.S.Schimel; T.G.F. Kittel; S.Running; R.K.Monson; A.A.Turnipseed; D. Anderson. 2002. Carbon sequestration studied in Western U. S. MountainsEOS Transactions. (AGU83)445-49. Reference
Daniel A. Sims; Abdullah F. Rahman; Vicente D. Cordova; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Allen H. Goldstein; David Y. Hollinger; Laurent Misson; Russell K. Monson; Hans P. Schmid. 2005. Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean fluxAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 131:1-2, 1-12. Reference
Desai, A.R., D.J.P. Moore, W.K.M. Ahue, P.T.V. Wilkes, S.F.J. De Wekker, B.G. Brooks, T.L. Campos, B.B. Stephens, R.K. Monson, S.P. Burns, T. Quaife, S.M. Aulenbach, and D.S. Schimel. 2011. Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 116(G04009): 1-16. Reference
G. Churkina; D. Schimel; B. Braswell; X. Xiao. 2005. Spatial analysis of growing season length control over net ecosystem exchangeGlobal Change Biology. 11:10, 1777-1787. Reference
Hibbard, et al. 2005. Biogeochemistry, 73, 29-70 Reference
J. P. Sparks; J. M. Roberts; R. K. Monson. 2003. Uptake of gaseous organic nitrogen by leaves: a significant global nitrogen transfer processGeophysical Research Letters. 30:23, ASC4-1/ASC4-4. Reference
K. A. Hibbard; B. E. Law; M. Reichstein; J. Sulzman. 2005. An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystemsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 29-70. Reference
P. B. Reich; M. B. Walters; D. S. Ellsworth; J. M. Vose; J. C. Volin; C. Gresham; W. D. Bowman. 1998. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groupsOecologia. 114:4, 471-482. Reference
R. K. Monson; A. A. Turnipseed; J. P. Sparks; P. C. Harley; L. E. Scott-Denton; K. Sparks; T. E. Huxman. 2002. Carbon sequestration in a high-elevation, subalpine forestGlobal Change Biology. 8:5, 459-478. Primary_Citation
R. K. Monson; J. P. Sparks; T. N. Rosenstiel; L. E. Scott-Denton; T. E. Huxman; P. C. Harley; A. A. Turnipseed; S. P. Burns; B. Backlund; J. Hu. 2005. Climatic influences on net ecosystem CO2 exchange during the transition from wintertime carbon source to springtime carbon sink in a high-elevation, subalpine forestOecologia. 146:1, 130-147. Reference
Riveros-Iregui, D.A., J. Hu, S.P. Burns, D.R. Bowling, and R.K. Monson. 2011. An interannual assessment of the relationship between the stable carbon isotopic composition of ecosystem respiration and climate in a high-elevation subalpine forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 116(G2): 1-15. Reference
Sun, J., S.P. Oncley, S.P. Burns, B.B. Stephens, D.H. Lenschow, T. Campos, R.K. Monson, D.S. Schimel, W.J. Sacks, S.F.J. De Wekker, C.-T. Lai, B. Lamb, D. Ojima, P.Z. Ellsworth, L.S.L. Sternberg, S. Zhong, C. Clements, D.J.P. Moore, D.E. Anderson, A.S. Watt, J. Hu, M. Tschudi, S. Aulenbach, E. Allwine, and T. Coons. 2010. A Multiscale and Multidisciplinary Investigation Of Ecosystem´┐ŻAtmosphere CO2 Exchange Over the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91(2): 209-230. Reference
T. E. Huxman; A. A. Turnipseed; J. P. Sparks; P. C. Harley; R. K. Monson. 2003. Temperature as a control over ecosystem CO2 fluxes in a high- elevation, subalpine forestOecologia. 134:4, 537-546. Reference
WILLIAM J. SACKS; DAVID S. SCHIMEL; RUSSELL K. MONSON; BOBBY H. BRASWELL. 2006. Model-data synthesis of diurnal and seasonal CO2 fluxes at Niwot Ridge, ColoradoGlobal Change Biology. 12:2, 240-259. Reference

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
**Site Team Only** If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via