General Site Information
Site ID:US-Ho1
Site Name:Howland Forest (main tower)
Tower Team: PI: David Hollinger <David.Hollinger@unh.edu> - USDA Forest Service
Affiliate: Aaron Teets <aaron.teets@maine.edu> - University of Maine
Latitude:45.2041
Longitude:-68.7402
Elevation (m):60
NetworkAmeriFlux
IGBP:ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):5.27
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):1070
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   19 years (Duration: 1996 - 2014)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   9 years (Duration: 1996 - 2004)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   330 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   254 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246061
Description:Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
BibliographyUsage
A. A. Arain; N. Restrepo-Coupe. 2005. Net ecosystem production in a temperate pine plantation in southeastern CanadaAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 128:3-4, 223-241. Reference
A. D. Richardson; D. Y. Hollinger; G. G. Burba; K. J. Davis; L. B. Flanagan; G. G. Katul; J. W. Munger; D. M. Ricciuto; P. C. Stoy; A. E. Suyker; S. B. Verma; S. C. Wofsy. 2006. A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 136:1-2, 1-18. Reference
Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger. 2005. Statistical modeling of ecosystem respiration using eddy covariance data: Maximum likelihood parameter estimation, and Monte Carlo simulation of model and parameter uncertainty, applied to three simple modelsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 131:3-4, 191-208. Reference
C. T. Lai; J. R. Ehleringer; P. Tans; S. C. Wofsy; S. P. Urbanski; D. Y. Hollinger. 2004. Estimating photosynthetic C-13 discrimination in terrestrial CO2 exchange from canopy to regional scalesGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 18:1. Reference
Daniel A. Sims; Abdullah F. Rahman; Vicente D. Cordova; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Allen H. Goldstein; David Y. Hollinger; Laurent Misson; Russell K. Monson; Hans P. Schmid. 2005. Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean fluxAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 131:1-2, 1-12. Reference
E. A. Davidson; A. D. Richardson; K. E. Savage; D. Y. Hollinger. 2006. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forestGlobal Change Biology. 12:2, 230-239. Reference
E. A. Davidson; K. Savage; L. V. Verchot; R. Navarro. 2002. Minimizing artifacts and biases in chamber-based measurements of soil respirationAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 21-37. Reference
E. A. Davidson; K. Savage; P. Bolstad; D. A. Clark; P. S. Curtis; D. S. Ellsworth; P. J. Hanson; B. E. Law; Y. Luo; K. S. Pregitzer; J. C. Randolph; D. Zak. 2002. Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA-based soil respiration measurementsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 39-51. Reference
E. Falge; D. Baldocchi; J. Tenhunen; M. Aubinet; P. Bakwin; P. Berbigier; C. Bernhofer; G. Burba; R. Clement; K. J. Davis; J. A. Elbers; A. H. Goldstein; A. Grelle; A. Granier; J. Guomundsson; D. Hollinger; A. S. Kowalski; G. Katul; B. E. Law; Y. Malhi; T. Meyers; R. K. Monson; J. W. Munger; W. Oechel; K. T. Paw; K. Pilegaard; U. Rannik; C. Rebmann; A. Suyker; R. Valentini; K. Wilson; S. Wofsy. 2002. Seasonality of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production as derived from FLUXNET measurementsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 53-74. Reference
Eric A. Davidson; Ivan A. Janssens; Yiqi Luo. 2006. On the variability of respiration in terrestrial ecosystems: moving beyond Q10Global Change Biology. 12:2, 154-164. Reference
Fernandez et al. 1993. Estimating total soil mass, nutrient content, and trace metals in soils under a low elevation spruce-fir forest. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 73, 317-328 Reference
Hollinger et al. 1999. Seasonal patterns and environmental control of carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in an ecotonal boreal forest. Global Change Biology, 5:891-902. Reference
Hollinger et al. 2004. Spatial and temporal variability in forest-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Global Change Biology, 10:1689-1706. Reference
K. A. Hibbard; B. E. Law; M. Reichstein; J. Sulzman. 2005. An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystemsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 29-70. Reference
K. E. Savage; E. A. Davidson. 2001. Interannual variation of soil respiration in two New England forestsGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 15:2, 337-350. Reference
P. E. Thornton B. E. Law; H. L. Gholz; K. L. Clark; E. Falge; D. S. Ellsworth; A. H. Golstein; R. K. Monson; D. Hollinger; M. Falk; J. Chen; J. P. Sparks. 2002. Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needleleaf forestsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 185-222. Reference
X. M. Xiao; D. Hollinger; J . Aber; M. Goltz; E. A. Davidson; Q. Y. Zhang; B. Moore. 2004. Satellite-based modeling of gross primary production in an evergreen needleleaf forestRemote Sensing of Environment. 89:4, 519-534. Reference
X. M. Xiao; Q. Y. Zhang; D. Hollinger; J. Aber; B. Moore. 2005. Modeling gross primary production of an evergreen needleaf forest using modis and climate dataEcological Applications. 15:3, 954-969. Reference

These pages show the current information available at http://ameriflux.lbl.gov about this tower.
**Site Team Only** If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via http://ameriflux.lbl.gov/web-submit-ui/?site_id=US-Ho1