General Site Information
Site ID:US-Ha1
Site Name:Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)
Tower Team: PI: J. William Munger <> - Harvard University
BADMContact: Tim Whitby <> - None
Affiliate: Evan Goldman <> - Harvard University
Elevation (m):340
IGBP:DBF (Deciduous Broadleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):6.62
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):1071
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   25 years (Duration: 1991 - 2015)
FLUXNET2015:   22 years (Duration: 1991 - 2012)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   16 years (Duration: 1991 - 2006)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   410 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   877 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   294 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246059
Description:The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.
Acknowledgments:Operation of the US-Ha1 site is supported by the AmeriFlux Management Project with funding by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and additionally is a part of the Harvard Forest LTER site supported by the National Science Foundation (DEB-1237491).
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
Bassow, S. L., and F. A. Bazzaz (1998), How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species, Ecology, 79(8), 2660-2675 Reference
C. C. Barford; S. C. Wofsy; M. L. Goulden; J. W. Munger; E. H. Pyle; S. P. Urbanski; L. Hutyra; S. R. Saleska; D. Fitzjarrald; K. Moore. 2001. Factors controlling long- and short-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in a mid-latitude forestScience. 294:5547, 1688-1691. Reference
Freedman, J. M., D. R. Fitzjarrald, K. E. Moore, and R. K. Sakai (2001), Boundary layer clouds and vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, Journal of Climate, 14(2), 180-197. Reference
Goldstein, A. H., M. L. Goulden, J. W. Munger, S. C. Wofsy, and C. D. Geron (1998), Seasonal course of isoprene emissions from a midlatitude deciduous forest, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 103(D23), 31045-31056. Reference
Goulden, M. L. Munger, J. W. Fan, S. M. Daube, B. C. Wofsy, S. C., 1996, Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: Response to interannual climate variability, Science, 271, 1576-1578. Reference
K. E. Savage; E. A. Davidson. 2001. Interannual variation of soil respiration in two New England forestsGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles. 15:2, 337-350. Reference
Keenan, T. F., E. Davidson, A. M. Moffat, W. Munger, and A. D. Richardson (2012), Using model-data fusion to interpret past trends, and quantify uncertainties in future projections, of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling. Global Change Biology 18:2555–2569. Reference
Liu, W. H., D. M. Bryant, L. R. Hutyra, S. R. Saleska, E. Hammond-Pyle, D. Curran, and S. C. Wofsy (2006), Woody debris contribution to the carbon budget of selectively logged and maturing mid-latitude forests, Oecologia, 148(1), 108-117. Reference
M. J. Potosnak; S. C. Wofsy; A. S. Denning; T. J. Conway; J. W. Munger; D. H. Barnes. 1999. Influence of biotic exchange and combustion sources on atmospheric CO2 concentrations in New England from observations at a forest flux towerJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 104:D8, 9561. Reference
M. L. Goulden; J. W. Munger; S. M. Fan; B. C. Daube; S. C. Wofsy. 1996. Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: Methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy, Global Change Biology. 2:3, 169. Reference
Moore, K. E., D. R. Fitzjarrald, R. K. Sakai, M. L. Goulden, J. W. Munger, and S. C. Wofsy (1996), Seasonal variation in radiative and turbulent exchange at a deciduous forest in central Massachusetts, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 35(1), 122-134. Reference
Munger, J. W., S. M. Fan, P. S. Bakwin, M. L. Goulden, A. H. Goldstein, A. S. Colman, and S. C. Wofsy (1998), Regional budgets for nitrogen oxides from continental sources: Variations of rates for oxidation and deposition with season and distance from source regions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 103(D7), 8355-8368. Reference
P. S. Curtis; P. J. Hanson; P. Bolstad; C. Barford; J. C. Randolph; H. P. Schmid; K. B. Wilson. 2002. Biometric and eddy-covariance based estimates of annual carbon storage in five eastern North American deciduous forestsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 113:1-4, 3-19. Reference
Phillips, S. C., R. K. Varner, S. Frolking, J. W. Munger, J. L. Bubier, S. C. Wofsy, and P. M. Crill (2010), Interannual, seasonal, and diel variation in soil respiration relative to ecosystem respiration at a wetland to upland slope at Harvard Forest, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 115 Reference
R. M. Staebler; D. R. Fitzjarrald. 2004. Observing subcanopy CO2 advectionAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 122:3-4, 139-156. Reference
S. C. Wofsy; M. L. Goulden; J. W. Munger; S. M. Fan; P. S. Bakwin; B. C. Daube; S. L. Bassow; F. A. Bazzaz. 1993. Net exchange of CO2 in a midlatitude forestScience. 260:5112, 1314. Reference
S. L. Bassow; F. A. Bazzaz. 1997. Intra- and inter-specific variation in canopy photosynthesis in a mixed deciduous forest Oecologia. 109:4, 507-515. Reference
Staebler, R. M., and D. R. Fitzjarrald (2005), Measuring canopy structure and the kinematics of subcanopy flows in two forests, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 44(8), 1161-1179. Reference
Urbanski, S., C. Barford, S. Wofsy, C. Kucharik, E. Pyle, J. Budney, K. McKain, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Czikowsky, and J. W. Munger (2007), Factors controlling CO2 exchange on timescales from hourly to decadal at Harvard Forest, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G02020 Primary_Citation

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
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