General Site Information
Site Name:GLEES
Tower Team: PI: Bill Massman <> - USDA Forest Service
Elevation (m):3197
IGBP:ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfc (Subarctic: severe winter, no dry season, cool summer)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):0.80
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):1200
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   13 years (Duration: 2004 - 2016)
FLUXNET2015:   11 years (Duration: 2004 - 2014)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   284 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   492 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1246056
Description:The Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site (GLEES) site is located on land owned by the U.S. government and managed by US Forest Service as part of the Medicine Bow National Forest. Many of the trees in the immediate vicinity of the site are older than 400 years, inter-dispersed among trees much younger in age. This widespread age distribution is most likely a derivation of one of two scenarios: 1) A widespread stand replacement about 400 years ago followed by a slow replacement; 2) Intermittent random disturbances over the past 400 years (Bradford et al. 2008). A decade long spruce beetle outbreak that peaked in 2008 resulted in the mortality of 85% of the forested basal area. There are a few private land holdings in the area, with scattered uncorked mining claims. Following the establishment of the National Forest, mining was banned and grazing was closed in the early 1990's in the upper portion of the GLEES site. Recreation in the winter, when snow can remain in patches into the summer months, snow mobiling and cross country skiing are popular. During the limited summer, hiking, camping and fishing are common activities. The site is accessible by vehicle only during the summer on Forest Road FDR 317, and in the winter, the tower is only reachable via snowmobile.
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
A. A. Arain; N. Restrepo-Coupe. 2005. Net ecosystem production in a temperate pine plantation in southeastern CanadaAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 128:3-4, 223-241. Reference
Bradford, J. B., R. A. Birdsey, L. A. Joyce, and M. G. Ryan. 2008. Tree age, disturbance history, and carbon stocks and fluxes in subalpine Rocky Mountain forests. Global Change Biology 14:2882-2897. Reference
J. M. Frank; W. J. Massman; B. E. Ewers; L. S. Huckaby; J. F. Negrón. 2014. Ecosystem CO2/H2O fluxes are explained by hydraulically limited gas exchange during tree mortality from spruce bark beetles. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 2013JG002597. Primary_Citation
K. F. Zeller; N. T. Nikolov. 2000. Quantifying simultaneous fluxes of ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor above a subalpine forest ecosystemEnvironmental Pollution. 107:1, 1-20. Reference
Musselman, R. C. 1994. The Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report RM–249. Reference
N. G. McDowell; J. D. Marshall; T. D. Hooker; R. Musselman. 2000. Estimating CO2 flux from snowpacks at three sites in the Rocky MountainsTree Physiology. 20:11, 745-753. Reference
S.J. Del Grosso; W.J. Parton; A.R. Mosier; E.A. Holland; E. Pendall; D.S. Schimel; D.S. Ojima. 2005. Modeling soil CO2 emissions from ecosystemsBiogeochemistry. 73:1, 71-91. Reference
Speckman, H. N., J. M. Frank, J. B. Bradford, B. L. Miles, W. J. Massman, W. J. Parton, and M. G. Ryan. 2015. Forest ecosystem respiration estimated from eddy covariance and chamber measurements under high turbulence and substantial tree mortality from bark beetles. Global Change Biology 21:708-721. Reference

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
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