General Site Information
Site ID:CA-Obs
Site Name:Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce
Tower Team: PI: T. Andrew Black <> - The University of British Columbia
AncContact: Marc-Andre Giasson <> -
Elevation (m):628.94
NetworkAmeriFlux, Fluxnet-Canada
IGBP:ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfc (Subarctic: severe winter, no dry season, cool summer)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):0.79
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):406
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   14 years (Duration: 1997 - 2010)
FLUXNET2015:   14 years (Duration: 1997 - 2010)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   7 years (Duration: 1999 - 2005)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   98 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   106 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   77 unique downloads
Description:53.98717° N, 105.11779° W, elavation of 628.94 m, BOREAS 1994, 1996, BERMS climate measurements began Dec. 1996 and flux measurements in Apr. 1999
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
B. Bond-Lamberty; C. K. Wang; S. T. Gower. 2004. A global relationship between the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration?Global Change Biology. 10:10, 1756-1766. Reference
B. Saugier; A. Granier; J. Y. Pontailler; E. Dufrene; D. D. Baldocchi. 1997. Transpiration of a boreal pine forest measured by branch bag, sap flow and micrometeorological methodsTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 511. Reference
Bergeron, O., H.A. Margolis, T.A. Black, C. Coursolle, A.L. Dunn, A.G. Barr and S.C. Wofsy. 2006. Comparison of carbon fluxes over three boreal black spruce forests in Canada. Global Change Biology. 12, 1-19 Reference
C. J. Kucharik; J. M. Norman; S. T. Gower. 1999. Characterization of radiation regimes in nonrandom forest canopies: theory, measurements, and a simplified modeling approachTree Physiology. 19:11, 695-706. Reference
C. J. Nichol; K. F. Huemmrich; T. A. Black; P. G. Jarvis; C. L. Walthall; J. Grace; F. G. Hall. 2000. Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of boreal forestAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 101:2-3, 131-142. Reference
D. P. Turner; S. Urbanski; D. Bremer; S. C. Wofsy; T. Meyers; S. T. Gower; M. Gregory. 2003. A cross-biome comparison of daily light use efficiency for gross primary productionGlobal Change Biology. 9:3, 383-395. Reference
D. Whitehead; S. T. Gower. 2001. Photosynthesis and light-use efficiency by plants in a Canadian boreal forest ecosystemTree Physiology. 21:12-13, 925-929. Reference
H. A. Margolis; M. G. Ryan. 1997. A physiological basis for biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the boreal forest: an overviewTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 491-499. Reference
J. H. Sullivan; B. D. Bovard; E. M. Middleton. 1997. Variability in leaf-level CO2 and water fluxes in Pinus banksiana and Picea mariana in SaskatchewanTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 553-561. Reference
J. L. Roujean. 1999. Measurements of PAR transmittance within boreal forest stands during BOREASAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 93:1, 1-6. Reference
J. M. Chen; W. M. Ju; J. Cihlar; D. Price; J. Liu; W. J. Chen; J. J. Pan; A. Black; A. Barr. 2003. Spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks in Canada's forestsTellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 55:2, 622-641. Reference
J. P. Gastellu-Etchegorry; P. Guillevic; F. Zagolski; V. Demarez; V. Trichon; D. Deering; Leroy M.. 1999. Modeling BRF and Radiation Regime of Boreal and Tropical Forest: I. BRFRemote Sensing of Environment. 68, 281-316. Reference
J. R. Brooks; L. B. Flanagan; G. T. Varney; J. R. Ehleringer. 1997. Vertical gradients in photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics and refixation of respired CO2 within boreal forest canopiesTree Physiology. 17:1, 1. Reference
J. S. Kimball; P. E. Thornton; M. A. White; S. W. Running. 1997. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study regionTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 589. Reference
Jarvis, P.G., Massheder, J.M., Hale, S.E., Moncrieff, J.B., Rayment, M., Scott, S.L. 1997. Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy exchanges of a boreal black spruce forest. Journal of Geophysical Research. 102: 28953-28966 Reference
K. E. B. O'Connell; S. T. Gower; J. M. Norman. 2003. Comparison of net primary production and light-use dynamics of two boreal black spruce forest communitiesEcosystems. 6:3, 236-247. Reference
K. E. Bisbee; S. T. Gower; J. M. Norman; E. V. Nordheim. 2001. Environmental controls on ground cover species composition and productivity in a boreal black spruce forestOecologia. 129:2, 261-270. Reference
L. Mahrt; D. Vickers. 2002. Relationship of area-averaged carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes to atmospheric variablesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 112:3-4, 195-202. Reference
M. B. Lavigne; M. G. Ryan. 1997. Growth and maintenance respiration rates of aspen, black spruce and jack pine stems at northern and southern BOREAS sitesTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 543-551. Reference
M. B. Rayment; D. Loustau; P. G. Jarvis. 2002. Photosynthesis and respiration of black spruce at three organizational scales: shoot, branch and canopyTree Physiology. 22:4, 219-229. Reference
M. B. Rayment; P. G. Jarvis. 1999. Seasonal gas exchange of black spruce using an automatic branch bag systemCanadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere. 29:10, 1528-1538. Reference
M. L. Goulden; B. C. Daube; S. M. Fan; D. J. Sutton; A. Bazzaz; J. W. Munger; S. C. Wofsy. 1997. Physiological responses of a black spruce forest to weatherJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 102:D24, 28987. Reference
M. L. Goulden; P. M. Crill. 1997. Automated measurements of CO2 exchange at the moss surface of a black spruce forestTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 537. Reference
M. Lerdau; M. Litvak; P. Palmer; R. Monson. 1997. Controls over monoterpene emissions from boreal forest conifersTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 563-569. Reference
P. Guillevic; J. P. Gastellu-Etchegorry. 1999. Modeling BRF and Radiation Regime of Boreal and Tropical Forest: II. PAR RegimeRemote Sensing of Environment. 68, 317-340. Reference
R. Nakamura; L. Mahrt. 2001. Similarity theory for local and spatially averaged momentum fluxesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 108:4, 265-279. Reference
R. V. Swanson; L. B. Flanagan. 2001. Environmental regulation of carbon dioxide exchange at the forest floor in a boreal black spruce ecosystemAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 108:3, 165-181. Reference
S. J. Steele; S. T. Gower; J. G. Vogel; J. M. Norman. 1997. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, CanadaTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 577. Reference
S. Sandmeier; D. W. Deering. 1999. Structure analysis and classification of boreal forests using airborne hyperspectral BRDF data from ASASRemote Sensing of Environment. 69:3, 281-295. Reference
S. T. Gower; O. Krankina; R. J. Olson; M. Apps; S. Linder; C. Wang. 2001. Net primary production and carbon allocation patterns of boreal forest ecosystemsEcological Applications. 11:5, 1395-1411. Reference
T. J. Griffis; T. A. Black; K. Morgenstern; A. G. Barr; Z. Nesic; G. B. Drewitt; D. Gaumont-Guay; J. H. McCaughey. 2003. Ecophysiological controls on the carbon balances of three southern boreal forestsAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 117:1-2, 53-71. Reference
Y. Malhi; D. D. Baldocchi; P. G. Jarvis. 1999. The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forestsPlant, Cell and Environment. 22:6, 715-740. Reference

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
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