General Site Information
Site ID:CA-Man
Site Name:Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)
Tower Team: PI: Brian Amiro <> - University of Manitoba
AncContact: Steve Wofsy <> - Harvard University
Elevation (m):259
NetworkAmeriFlux, Fluxnet-Canada
IGBP:ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Dfc (Subarctic: severe winter, no dry season, cool summer)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):-3.2
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):520
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   15 years (Duration: 1994 - 2008)
FLUXNET2015:   15 years (Duration: 1994 - 2008)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   10 years (Duration: 1994 - 2003)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   178 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   229 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   240 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1245997
Description:55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.
Acknowledgments:The data collection was funded by many sources, including: the DOE Terrestrial Carbon Program, NASA Terrestrial Ecosystem Program, the Fluxnet Canada Research Network and the Canadian Carbon Program (supported by the Canadian National Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences and the BIOCAP Canada Foundation).
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
A. I. Hirsch; S. E. Trumbore; M. L. Goulden. 2004. The surface CO2 gradient and pore-space storage flux in a high-porosity litter layerTellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 56:4, 312-321. Reference
B. Bond-Lamberty; C. K. Wang; S. T. Gower. 2004. A global relationship between the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration?Global Change Biology. 10:10, 1756-1766. Reference
B. Bond-Lamberty; C. K. Wang; S. T. Gower. 2004. Net primary production and net ecosystem production of a boreal black spruce wildfire chronosequenceGlobal Change Biology. 10:4, 473-487. Reference
B. Bond-Lamberty; C. Wang; S. T. Gower; J. Norman. 2002. Leaf area dynamics of a boreal black spruce fire chronosequenceTree Physiology. 22:14, 993-1001. Reference
B. D. Amiro; J. I. MacPherson; R. L. Desjardins. 1999. BOREAS flight measurements of forest-fire effects on carbon dioxide and energy fluxesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 96:4, 199-208. Reference
Bergeron, O., H.A. Margolis, T.A. Black, C. Coursolle, A.L. Dunn, A.G. Barr and S.C. Wofsy. 2006. Comparison of carbon fluxes over three boreal black spruce forests in Canada. Global Change Biology. 12, 1-19 Reference
C. J. Kucharik; J. M. Norman; S. T. Gower. 1999. Characterization of radiation regimes in nonrandom forest canopies: theory, measurements, and a simplified modeling approachTree Physiology. 19:11, 695-706. Reference
C. J. Nichol; K. F. Huemmrich; T. A. Black; P. G. Jarvis; C. L. Walthall; J. Grace; F. G. Hall. 2000. Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of boreal forestAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 101:2-3, 131-142. Reference
C. K. Wang; B. Bond-Lamberty; S. T. Gower. 2003. Carbon distribution of a well- and poorly-drained black spruce fire chronosequenceGlobal Change Biology. 9:7, 1066-1079. Reference
Coursolle, C_et_al_2006. Late-summer carbon fluxes from Canadian forests and peatlands along an east-west continental transect. Can. J. For. Res. 36, 783-800. Reference
D. W. Joiner; J. H. McCaughey; P. M. Lafleur; P. A. Bartlett. 1999. Water and carbon dioxide exchange at a boreal young jack pine forest in the BOREAS northern study areaJournal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 104:D22, 27641-27652. Reference
Dunn, A.L., Barford, C.C., Wofsy, S.C., Goulden, M.L., Daube, B.C. 2006 A long-term record of carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest: means, responses to interannual variability, and decadal trends. Global Change Biology. 12: 1-14. Reference
Dunn, A.L., Barford, C.C., Wofsy, S.C., Goulden, M.L., Daube, B.C., 2007. A long-term record of carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest: means, responses to interannual variability and decadal trends. Global Change Biol. 13, 577-590. Primary_Citation
Gower, S.T., Vogel, J.G., Norman, J.M., Kucharik, C.J., Steele, S.J., Stow, T.K. 1997. Carbon distribution and aboveground net primary production in aspen, jack pine, and black spruce stands in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 29029–29041. Reference
H. A. Margolis; M. G. Ryan. 1997. A physiological basis for biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the boreal forest: an overviewTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 491-499. Reference
J. R. Brooks; L. B. Flanagan; G. T. Varney; J. R. Ehleringer. 1997. Vertical gradients in photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics and refixation of respired CO2 within boreal forest canopiesTree Physiology. 17:1, 1. Reference
J. S. Kimball; P. E. Thornton; M. A. White; S. W. Running. 1997. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study regionTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 589. Reference
M. B. Lavigne; M. G. Ryan. 1997. Growth and maintenance respiration rates of aspen, black spruce and jack pine stems at northern and southern BOREAS sitesTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 543-551. Reference
P. B. Reich; D. P. Turner; P. Bolstad. 1999. An approach to spatially distributed modeling of net primary production (NPP) at the landscape scale and its application in validation of EOS NPP productsRemote Sensing of Environment. 70:1, 69-81. Reference
P.S. Bakwin; K. J. Davis; C. Yi; S.C. Wofsy; J. W. Munger; L. Haszpra; Z. Barcza. 2004. Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from mixing ratio dataTellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology. 56B:4, 301-311. Reference
Q. L. Dang; H. A. Margolis; M. R. Coyea; M. Sy; G. J. Collatz. 1997. Regulation of branch-level gas exchange of boreal trees: roles of shoot water potential and vapor pressure differenceTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 521-535. Reference
R. Nakamura; L. Mahrt. 2001. Similarity theory for local and spatially averaged momentum fluxesAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 108:4, 265-279. Reference
S. J. Steele; S. T. Gower; J. G. Vogel; J. M. Norman. 1997. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, CanadaTree Physiology. 17:8-9, 577. Reference
S. T. Gower; O. Krankina; R. J. Olson; M. Apps; S. Linder; C. Wang. 2001. Net primary production and carbon allocation patterns of boreal forest ecosystemsEcological Applications. 11:5, 1395-1411. Reference

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