General Site Information
Site ID:BR-Sa1
Site Name:Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest
Tower Team: PI: Scott Saleska <> - University of Arizona
AncContact: Steve Wofsy <> - Harvard University
Elevation (m):88
NetworkAmeriFlux, LBA
IGBP:EBF (Evergreen Broadleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen:Am (Tropical monsoon)
Mean Annual Temperature (degrees C):26.13
Mean Annual Precipitation (mm):2075
Data Products: AmeriFlux BASE Dataset
FLUXNET2015 Dataset
FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset
Data Availability: AmeriFlux BASE:   10 years (Duration: 2002 - 2011)
FLUXNET2015:   10 years (Duration: 2002 - 2011)
FLUXNET LaThuile:   3 years (Duration: 2002 - 2004)
Data Downloads to Date: AmeriFlux BASE:   296 unique downloads
FLUXNET2015:   330 unique downloads
FLUXNET LaThuile:   77 unique downloads
Data DOIs: AmeriFlux BASE DOI: 10.17190/AMF/1245994
Description:The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.
Site image(s):
For additional AmeriFlux site images, see the Web site gallery

Publications relevant to understanding the site
A. H. Rice;E. H. Pyle;S. R. Saleska;L. Hutyra;M. Palace;M. Keller;P. B. de Camargo;K. Portilho;D. F. Marques;S. C. Wofsy. 2004. Carbon balance and vegetation dynamics in an old-growth Amazonian forest, Ecological Applications, 14:4. S55-S71. Reference
B. Kruijt; J. A. Elbers; C. von Randow; A. C. Araujo; P. J. Oliveira; A. Culf; A. O. Manzi; A. D. Nobre; P. Kabat; E. J. Moors. 2004. The robustness of eddy correlation fluxes for Amazon rain forest conditionsEcological Applications. 14:4, S101-S113. Reference
B. Wick; E. Veldkamp; W. Z. De Mello; M. Keller; P. Crill. 2005. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, BrazilBiogeosciences. 2:2, 175-187. Reference
C. A. Quesada; A. C. Miranda; M. G. Hodnett; A. J. B. Santos; H. S. Miranda; L. M. Breyer. 2004. Seasonal and depth variation of soil moisture in a burned open savanna (campo sujo) in central BrazilEcological Applications. 14:4, S33-S41. Reference
C. S. Martens; T. J. Shay; H. P. Mendlovitz; D. M. Matross; S. R. Saleska; S. C. Wofsy; W. S. Woodward; M. C. Menton; J. M. S. De Moura; P. M. Crill; O. L. L. De Moraes; R. L. Lima. 2004. Radon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia: night-time CO2 net ecosystem exchange derived from radon and eddy covariance methodsGlobal Change Biology. 10:5, 618-629. Reference
G. L. Vourlitis; N. Priante; M. M. S. Hayashi; J. D. Nogueira; F. Raiter; W. Hoegel; J. H. Campelo. 2004. Effects of meteorological variations on the CO2 exchange of a Brazilian transitional tropical forestEcological Applications. 14:4, S89-S100. Reference
J. Q. Chambers; E. S. Tribuzy; L. C. Toledo; B. F. Crispim; N. Higuchi; J. dos Santos; A. C. Araujo; B. Kruijt; A. D. Nobre; S. E. Trumbore. 2004. Respiration from a tropical forest ecosystem: Partitioning of sources and low carbon use efficiencyEcological Applications. 14:4, S72-S88. Reference
L. H. Gu; E. M. Falge; T. Boden; D. D. Baldocchi; T. A. Black; S. R. Saleska; T. Suni; S. B. Verma; T. Vesala; S. C. Wofsy; L. K. Xu. 2005. Objective threshold determination for nighttime eddy flux filteringAgricultural and Forest Meteorology. 128:3-4, 179-197. Reference
M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamante; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fernandes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante; H. da Rocha; P. S. Dias; C. von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis. 2004. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: Early resultsEcological Applications. 14:4, S3-S16. Reference
P. J. Riggan; R. G. Tissell; R. N. Lockwood; J. A. Brass; J. A. R. Pereira; H. S. Miranda; A. C. Miranda; T. Campos; R. Higgins. 2004. Remote measurement of energy and carbon flux from wildfires in BrazilEcological Applications. 14:3, 855-872. Reference
Rice_et_al_EcolAppl_2004_14(4)Supplement_55-71 Reference
S. R. Saleska; S. D. Miller; D. M. Matross; M. L. Goulden; S. C. Wofsy; H. R. da Rocha; P. B. de Camargo; P. Crill; B. C. Daube; H. C. de Freitas; L. Hutyra; M. Keller; V. Kirchhoff; M. Menton; J. W. Munger; E. H. Pyle; A. H. Rice; H. Silva. 2003. Carbon in Amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced lossesScience. 302:5650, 1554-1557. Reference
T. R. Baker; O. L. Phillips; Y. Malhi; S. Almeida; L. Arroyo; A. Di Fiore; T. Erwin; T. J. Killeen; S. G. Laurance; W. F. Laurance; S. L. Lewis; J. Lloyd; A. Monteagudo; D. A. Neill; S. Patino; N. C. A. Pitman; J. N. M. Silva; R. V. Martinez. 2004. Variation in wood density determines spatial patterns in Amazonian forest biomassGlobal Change Biology. 10:5, 545-562. Reference

These pages show the current information available at about this tower.
**Site Team Only** If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via